Glossary (by category)

This is a glossary containing words that you may find in Warwickshire's Past Unlocked, grouped into categories. You can use the glossary by category to see other words that are related to the term you are looking for. Click the appropriate category from the list below to locate the appropriate section of the glossary.

If you are unsure which category your term is from, then please go to the alphabetical glossary.

If you are unable to locate the word that you are looking for, then please do not hesitate to contact us and let us know.

Archive Administration . Property/Deeds/Conveyancing . Units of Measurement . Ecclesiastical Terminology . Manorial Terminology . Professions . Courts/Legal Terminology . Local Government . Taxation . Non-conformity . General

Archive Administration

TermMeaining
AccessionRecords created or collected by a single body or individual, given to the record office on a particular occasion.
AnyTextYour search term, i.e. the word or word(s) that you enter in the AnyText box on the Search the Catalogue page. The software will search every field of every record for the term that you have specified.
BundleA group of documents, often tied together and described as one unit.
CatalogueA list of documents, mainly from one collection, giving their reference number, brief description of their composition and content and their date.
CollectionAll records (which could include a number of accessions) deposited by a single individual or body.
DateofcopyThis field is most often used in descriptions of photographs. Some of the photographs in our collection are copies of much older images. The date of the photograph's content is recorded in the date field and the dateofcopy field is used to record the date that the reproduction was made.
DepositorThe individual or body who owns or is responsible for the records.
DocRefNoThis stands for Document Reference Number and is a unique number that we assign to all documents.
Document ProductionThe process by which documents are retrieved from the strongrooms for consultation in the searchroom.
EADEncoded Archival Description. A computer language used to display archival catalogues on the internet.
FondsAn alternative name for a collection. All records (which could include a number of accessions) deposited by a single individual or body.
FondsNoAn artificial number that we use to group together all of the items in a collection. This number is also used to build the tree.
ItemThis is the actual document that we hold and that would be issued in the searchroom. It might be a single sheet of paper, a bundle of papers, a volume or an original bundle of deeds.
LevelUnlike library books, which tend to be catalogued one by one as separate items, archives are catalogued in groups. The archivist will look at all archives which belong together as part of a "collection", as identifying the links between the various documents is a significant part of the cataloguing process. To help users and other staff understand the context of a particular item, the archivist will create a catalogue which moves through different levels of description. You normally start with the collection as a whole - a brief description of the group of records, and end up with descriptions of individual items.
The help page includes an example of the levels of description.
Manuscript/MSA handwritten document.
Overview/HitlistHitlist is the name given to a list of all of the items that have been found containing the required search term. The level, title, docrefno and date are given in a list providing an overview of the items that have been found.
ParchmentThe treated skin of sheep or goats used as a writing material.
PhotocolourThis field is only seen on descriptions of photographs and is used to record whether the image is in Black & White, Colour or if it is Toned.
PhototypeThis field is only seen on descriptions of photographs and is used to record the type of photograph e.g. Ambrotype; Lantern; Slide; Glass Plate Negative; Print, Colour; Postcard.
Pipe RollThe annual accounts of Crown revenues, which were sent by sheriffs to the Exchequer, where they were rolled around rods, or 'pipes', for storage. They are now housed in the National Archives under E372.
Search termSignificant words that might be used in the description of the type of record you are looking for
SectionThis is a level of description which describes an administrative grouping, e.g. Parochial Church Council, Personnel
SeriesThis is a level of description which describes a group of similar records, e.g. parish registers.
TranscriptAn exact copy of the wording of a document.

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Property/Deeds/Conveyancing

TermMeaning
AlienationThe transfer of ownership from one person to another
AppurtenancesThe rights and duties associated with holding land
ArableCultivated land (usually ploughed)
Bargain and SaleA method of conveying property by private agreement, common in the 16th century. The name is also given to the deed recording the transaction
Barring an entailPreventing an entail from taking effect
BurgageThe house or plot of land held by the inhabitant of a town or borough OR a tenure of land in an ancient borough OR a small field near a farmhouse
ButtA short or irregularly shaped strip of land in an open (pre-enclosure) field, or one that lies at right angles to other strips.
ChattelsPersonal Property
Close A small hedged or walled field; an enclosure from the open fields
CodicilA signed and witnessed addition to a will
Common RecoveryA method used to bar an entail, involving fictitious legal proceedings
ConveyanceA general term for a deed which transfers land
CopyholdTenure of manorial land, with obligations to perform certain services for the lord. Copyhold tenure was abolished in 1922.
Counterpart of leaseOne of two identical documents pared as part of a lease, The counterpart is executed by the lessee, who then exchanges this for the lease which is executed by the lessor.
CovenantAn agreement creating an obligation contained in a deed.
Croft(i) A small piece of enclosed land near a dwelling.
(ii) A small dwelling.
Demesne/DemesnesLand retained by the lord of the manor for his own use, or which was part of the main farm of the manor.
DemiseTo convey a property by lease.
DeviseeA beneficiary of a will
Distrain/DistreintA term originally applied to the seizure of possessions, generally livestock, in compensation for an alleged breach of feudal service obligations.
DriftwayA road along which cattle or horses are driven to pasture or market
EnclosureThe amalgamation of land holdings, thereby freeing it from common rights
EncroachmentThe extension of private property, enclosing part of a green, common or another person's land.
EntailEstate which is settled without regard to the rules of its descent.
ExecutrixA female person appointed by the testator to carry out the intentions of the will.
Fee simpleFreehold land which can be disposed of according to the wishes of the owner.
Feoffeei) Someone who holds a feudal tenure known as a fief, or
ii) A trustee
FeoffmentThe public transfer of land by the owner to the purchaser, consisting of the ceremony called "livery of seisin". The written record of this transaction became known as a charter or deed of feoffment.
FineThe amount of money paid for a lease or admission to copyhold land
FitherA small strip of land between two ridges.
Foredraft/foredraught/foredriftA lane leading from a dwelling to a road or field.
GlebeLand held by a clergyman.
GrateA barred place of confinement for animals
HadeUncultivated land at the end of a block of strips, giving room for a horse-drawn plough to turn.
HeadlandUncultivated land at the end of a block of strips, giving room for a horse-drawn plough to turn.
HereditamentsAny property which may be inherited.
HolmA pasture of water meadow.
HomestallA homestead (i.e the site of a house) or farmyard.
HouseboteThe right to take wood from the lord's land for the repair of a house.
IndentureA document written in duplicate on the same parchment or paper, and divided into two by cutting a wavy line
LammasEnclosed land (formerly open)used as common grazing after the harvest; Lammas day was in early August.
LeasowA pasture.
LeyGrassland, or a field of grass.
LingA kind of heather.
Marriage SettlementThe complex arrangements for passing on property in advance of marriage, and the document recording these arrangements.
Math(i) A mowing.
(ii) Meadowland used for hay.
MeadowLand used for growing grass, often low-lying by a river.
MeerA small lake.
MessuageA house and the ground around it.
Mill Holme/Mill HamA small meadow by a mill.
ModusMoney payment in lieu of tithes.
OzierWillow used for hurdles, etc.
PastureUncultivated land used for grazing.
Penny LandA portion of land valued at a penny a year
Pent houseA shed attached to the side of a house, usually at a smithy, for horses to be shod in.
PieceA field or close of ground, often arable.
PikeA butt [see entry for butt within this section] of land running to a point (often because it lies at an angle to other strips).
PinfoldA small enclosure for keeping stray animals in.
PitOften used to denote a pond.
PleckA plot of enclosed ground or meadow.
ProbateA certificate showing that someone's will has been proved and registered.
QuerentA complainant or plaintiff
QuitclaimThe act of transferring a title or right or claim to another
Seizin/SeisinPossession of property, as opposed to ownership
SladeA valley or side of a hill.
SlangA narrow strip of land between fields
TenementA holding of land.
TerrierA document summarising land holdings, particularly of a church
TestamentA formal declaration, usually in writing, of a person's wishes as to the disposal of his property after his death. See also Will.
TitleA right to property
WillA person's formal declaration, usually in writing, of his intention as to the disposal of his property or other matters to be performed after his death. See also Testament.

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Units of Measurement

TermMeaning
Acre1 acre = 4840 square yards.
FurlongOriginally a furrow's length in a ploughed field, later (1) a unit of length, 220 yards or 201 metres (2) a block of strips in an open (pre-enclosure) field.
GloadsA measure of 15-20 feet. Also known as a lugg.
ManseDwelling house or measure of land sufficient to support a family.
Mark (money)A sum of money used for account, after the Conquest the value was fixed at 160 pence or 13s 4d or two thirds of the pound sterling.
MoietyA half.
NookA corner or triangular area usually a small piece of land or corner of a building.
Perch1 perch = 1/40 rood, or 1/160 acre, or about 30 square yards.
PightleAn alternative name for a close of enclosed piece of land, usually though not always small in scale.
PingleA small piece of land, most commonly referred to in the Midlands.
PoleA unit of measurement of land, either (1) square, equalling a perch, or (2) linear, equalling 5 1/2 yards.
Pound (animals)An enclosure for stray animals that could be reclaimed on the payment of a fine.
QuarternQuarter of a pint.
Rood1 rood = 1/4 acre or 1210 square yards.
Selion/sIrregularly sized strips of arable land in open fields.
ToftA plot of land to the rear of a building, often bounded at the rear by a back lane.
VirgateA standard holding of arable land in the Middle Ages, of up to 30 acres, scattered amongst the open-fields of a manor, with accompanying rights on the commons.
YardlandOne quarter of a hide. A hide is a variable measurement of land, but originally meant the amount of land which could be ploughed in a year using one plough with an 8-ox team.

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Ecclesiastical Terminology

TermMeaning
AdvowsonThe right to nominate a clergyman to a benefice, often subject to the approval of a diocesan bishop.
BannsThe published intention of marriage which are announced on three Sundays before the actual ceremony in the parish.
BastardyA term used widely in legal proceedings referring to children born out of wedlock.
BeneficeAn ecclesiastical office, or the income derived from it. It is usually applied to the incumbency of a parish church.
ChantryA chapel or altar endowed with lands or other revenues for the singing of masses for the soul of the donor. Chantries were abolished in 1547.
ChurchwardenA parish officer responsible for the upkeep of the church fabric, accounting for the expenditure of the church rate, control and extermination of vermin, etc.
ClergyThe body of all those appointed to the Christian ministry.
Consistory CourtA church court
CurateAn assistant of a beneficed clergyman.
DiaconateManaged by a deacon or deacons
DisburseTo pay out or expend
DonativeSomething that is given (normally referring to a benefice)
FacultiesA licence or authorisation issued by a senior ecclesiastical official. Often issued to authorise building work in parish churches
FiliationIn effect, an order for the maintenance of an illegitimate child.
Following on from a single woman naming the putative father of her child, churchwardens or overseers of the poor made application to the Justices of the Peace requiring the father (sometimes the mother) to pay maintenance to the parish, for so long as the child was chargeable to the parish. As part of the process, a warrant of apprehension could be issued in order to bring the putative father before JPs, prior to the filiation order being made.
GlebeLand held by a clergyman.
IncumbencyOffice held by the incumbent - resident minister of the parish
IncumbentA rector, parson, vicar or minister of a parish
OrdinarySomeone possessing ecclesiastical jurisdiction such as a Bishop or a Judge with authority to take cases in his own right.
Overseers of the PoorA parish officer appointed to deal with the administration of the poor law as set down in the 1601 Poor Law Act. This Act continued until its reform in 1834. Later Overseers of the Poor became merely rate assessors and collectors. The office was abolished in 1925.
Parish, ecclesiasticalA unit of pastoral care that was also expected to provide the resources to maintain its church and support its priest. A parish could be formed from more than one manor.
Parochial Church CouncilA parochial governing body in the Church of England, consisting of the incumbent, the churchwardens and elected parishioners.
PCC (Prerogative Court of Canterbury)The Prerogative Court of Canterbury was the probate Court of the Archbishop of Canterbury, which proved wills of persons who left goods of considerable value, usually in more than one diocese or deanery. Wills from this court are held at The National Archives.
PeculiarAn ecclesiastical district (usually a parish) outside the jurisdiction of the archbishop, bishop or archdeacon. Peculiars were entitled to hold their own courts, hence, before 1858 they proved wills of people who owned property in their respective districts.
Poor LawRefers to the Acts: 43 Elizabeth chapter 2, 1601 and 4/5 William IV chapter 76, 1834, both pieces of legislation created in order to deal with the poor.
PrebendThe right to a cathedral or collegiate church benefice.
PrebendaryThe holder of a prebend, usually the canon of a cathedral or collegiate church.
PrecentorAn official in a Cathedral either a member ranking next to the dean in the Old Foundation or a minor canon or chaplain in the New Foundation. It is also one who sings and plays without accompaniment in a church.
PreceptoryAn estate or manor house supporting a subordinate community of the Knights Templars.
Priest in ChargeAn incumbent of a parish who does not have permanent title, unlike a vicar and a rector.
RectorA parson or incumbent of a parish whose tithes were not appropriated to a monastery or college in the past.
Removal OrderThis was a warrant granted by the Justice of the Peace to forcibly transfer a pauper (or potential pauper) to his/her place of legal settlement.
SequestrationTo excommunicate someone, or cut them off from the privileges of church membership
Settlement certificateA settlement certificate was the written admission by a parish required by the poor, or potentially poor, which entitled them to legally settle in that parish.
Settlement (right to reside)Settlement was a system whereby the poor or potentially poor had to prove they had a right to settle in a parish. It was a way of ensuring the parish supported only those that had a legal right to live within that boundary. If a pauper could not prove settlement, he/she would be removed to the parish deemed legal place of settlement. What constituted settlement altered from time to time but could depend upon apprenticeship, place of birth, marriage (in the case of women), and/or father or mother's place of settlement.
TerrierA document summarising land holdings, particularly of a church
Tithe/TytheA tenth of all produce given to the rector of a parish, who in return was supposed to maintain the chancel of the church and provide for church worship. Tithes were categorised as 'great', being corn and hay, and 'small', being livestock, wool and non-cereal crops. Where the rector of a church was an organisation, such as a college, or a layperson, the small tithe was paid to the vicar who served in the rector's place.
VestryThe governing body of a parish. Generally appointment was based upon a property qualification, and often those qualifying held a position only after having first been invited to serve.
VicarOriginally, the minister who was appointed by an absentee rector. The vicar received the small tithes, whereas a resident rector received all the tithe. Parishes which today are served by a vicar must have paid tithes to a religion institution such as a monastery in the Middle Ages.

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Manorial Terminology

TermMeaning
AmercementsFine paid in a manorial court
AssizeA royal court of justice presided over by a judge responsible for trying to serious criminal and civil cases in a group of counties (known as a circuit). Assizes were held several times a year in each assize town within the circuit (normally one per county) from the 14th century until 1971 where they were replaced by the Crown Court in 1971.
Assizes of Bread and AleA process that took place in manorial courts to ensure that bakers and brewers sold goods of proper quality and quantity.
CopyholdTenure of manorial land, with obligations to perform certain services for the lord. Copyhold tenure was abolished in 1922.
Court of BaronA manorial court which enforced the customs of the manor, and dealt with land transfers, agricultural management, etc.
Court of LeetA manorial court which handled petty offences such as common nuisances or public affray, or the breaking of the Assize of Bread and Ale, and also with the maintenance of highways and ditches.
Demesne/DemesnesLand retained by the lord of the manor for his own use, or which was part of the main farm of the manor.
FrankpledgeA manorial system whereby groupings of 10 to 12 households (known as tithings) were held jointly responsible for the behaviour of each member. At the manorial Court Leet, a View of Frankpledge would regulate the working of the tithings.
HeriotA feudal obligation which has evolved over time. Most commonly, this refers to the practice whereby the heir to a deceased copyhold tenant has to give his best beast to the lord of the manor or, later, a money payment. In effect, it comprises a fee to enter copyhold land
HomageA ceremonial pledge of loyalty and obligation made by a tenant to his lord or a collective term for the assembly of tenants at a manorial court
LeetThe district covered by the Court Leet or the designated persons eligible to serve on the jury.
ManorA manor is a territorial unit that was held by a landlord who held land directly of the Crown. In the Middle Ages the manor was an economic unit, which included the demesne which the lord farmed himself, and the rest of the land, which was farmed by tenants or used as common pasture and waste. It is distinct from an estate because it also held a Court.
ManorialOf or pertaining to a manor.
Owing SuitThe obligation to attend a particular court.
PainsTerm used in manorial courts meaning a penalty or punishment, often a threat for not fulfilling an order or condition of the court.
Panage/PannageThe right of tenants to feed swine in common woodland
Quit (claim, rent)A small fixed annual rent, which on being paid released a manorial tenant from services to his lord. These payments were abolished in 1922.
SuitA tenant's obligation to attend the lord of the manor's court.
VillA township, parish or manor.

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Professions

TermMeaning
ChirurgeonSurgeon
ChurchwardenA parish officer responsible for the upkeep of the church fabric, accounting for the expenditure of the church rate, control and extermination of vermin, etc.
ClergyThe body of all those appointed to the Christian ministry.
Overseers of the PoorA parish officer appointed to deal with the administration of the poor law as set down in the 1601 Poor Law Act. This Act continued until its reform in 1834. Later Overseers of the Poor became merely rate assessors and collectors. The office was abolished in 1925.
WoodwardA forest keeper.
YeomanThis term has changed its meaning over time but in the 13th-15th centuries it mainly referred to a knight's servants or retainers. In Tudor times the term was gradually widened to include prosperous working farmers below the rank of gentry. These yeomen worked their own land, did not necessarily have to be freeholders, and were considered to be more prosperous than the average husbandman

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Courts/Legal Terminology

TermMeaning
AffidavitA sworn statement made in the presence of a person qualified to receive it
AssigneeSomeone appointed to act on behalf of someone else; a representative
AssizeA royal court of justice presided over by a judge responsible for trying more serious criminal and civil cases in a group of counties (known as a circuit). Assizes were held several times a year in each assize town within the circuit (normally one per county) from the 14th century until 1971 where they were replaced by the Crown Court in 1971.
BastardyA term used widely in legal proceedings referring to children born out of wedlock
ChanceryA Central Court specialising in equity cases, often relating to inheritance, debts and land ownership.
Court BaronA manorial court which enforced the customs of the manor, and dealt with land transfers, agricultural management, etc.
Court LeetA manorial court which handled petty offences such as common nuisances or public affray, or the breaking of the Assize of Bread and Ale, and also with the maintenance of highways and ditches.
Court of AugmentationsA court set up during the reign of Henry VIII to take judgements on controversies concerning monastery or abbey lands
DefeasanceRendering something null and void
Demesne/DemesnesLand retained by the lord of the manor for his own use, or which was part of the main farm of the manor.
DowerPart of an estate that a widow can claim for the rest of her life, or until her re-marriage
Filiation1. A persons parentage.
2. In effect, an order for the maintenance of an illegitimate child.
Following on from a single woman naming the putative father of her child, churchwardens or overseers of the poor made application to the Justices of the Peace requiring the father (sometimes the mother) to pay maintenance to the parish, for so long as the child was chargeable to the parish. As part of the process, a warrant of apprehension could be issued in order to bring the putative father before JPs, prior to the filiation order being made.
FrankpledgeA manorial system whereby groupings of 10 to 12 households (known as tithings) were held jointly responsible for the behaviour of each member. At the manorial Court Leet, a View of Frankpledge would regulate the working of the tithings.
IndemnityProtection against loss or damage; legal exemption from penalties.
InspeximusLatin for " we have inspected" in the context of inspection of charters
InstrumentA document used to carry out an action
LeetThe district covered by the Court Leet or the designated persons eligible to serve on the jury.
Petty SessionsThe meetings of local Justices of the Peace dealing with minor offences and the issuing of licences.
PolygamyMarriage with several spouses at one time
PraecipeA legal term for a writ commanding a defendant to do something or to appear and show why it should not be done or an order to the clerk of the court requesting that a writ be issued and specifying its contents.
PresentmentsA formal statement of something to be dealt with legally. A statement made on oath by a jury, magistrate or J.P or a report made by a churchwarden to a bishop during a visitation.
Quarter SessionsA system of quarterly meetings of the Justices of the Peace for each county and county borough which began in 1361. Records of Warwickshire Quarter Sessions do not survive before the seventeenth century. The Quarter Sessions court had both a judicial and administrative function so the surviving records include court minutes, calendars of prisoners along with licenses for ale houses, deposited plans for proposed public undertakings, including the construction of roads, railways and canals.
Quietus (roll)Final settlement or discharge of a payment
QuittanceDischarging a debt
Statute MerchantShorthand way of referring to the Statute of Merchants, 1285, which entitles someone owed a debt to seize the land of the person owing the money if he does not pay up by the appointed time
VoucheeIn law this means the person vouched or summoned into court to give warranty of title. It can also mean a person cited or appealed to as an authority for some fact or statement, or in evidence of some assertion.

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Local Government

TermMeaning
BurgessA citizen of a borough, with full municipal rights.
CensusA population survey. In England and Wales, a census has been held every 10 years from 1801, but it is only since 1841 that names of the inhabitants were systematically recorded.
ConstableThis officer was the keeper of law and order in the parish. Appointed by the parish vestry meeting he served for one year, unpaid. The office was replaced by the establishment of a county police force in the mid-19th century.
ConstablewickA township or tithing under the jurisdiction of a constable.
EnclosureThe amalgamation of land holdings, thereby freeing it from common rights
Highway SurveyorsAn Act of 1555 required the annual appointment at Easter of a 'Surveyor of the Highways' for each parish or township. The unpaid officer was empowered to raise local rates and had a particular responsibility for the supervision of statue labour, whereby local people were called upon to maintain their roads. In 1835 a new system was introduced whereby Justices of the Peace appointed paid surveyors for groups of parishes.
HundredAn administrative division of a shire, the influence of which declined as parishes, manors and judicial bodies became more important. They were probably first established in the 10th century, and were only formally abolished in 1894, when hundred courts were replaced by district councils.
Parish, civilThese often covered the same area as the ecclesiastical parish but had responsibilities for the poor, the highways and for petty law and order. The system was overseen by the Justices of the Peace, meeting at Quarter Sessions. This function continues today with elected Parish Councils.
Poor LawRefers to the Acts: 43 Elizabeth chapter 2, 1601 and 4/5 William IV chapter 76, 1834, both pieces of legislation created in order to deal with the poor.
Removal OrderThis was a warrant granted by the Justice of the Peace to forcibly transfer a pauper (or potential pauper) to his/her place of legal settlement.
Sanitary AuthorityNineteenth century administrative body responsible for local sanitation and hygiene matters.
Settlement (right to reside)Settlement was a system whereby the poor or potentially poor had to prove they had a right to settle in a parish. It was a way of ensuring the parish supported only those that had a legal right to live within that boundary. If a pauper could not prove settlement, he/she would be removed to the parish deemed legal place of settlement. What constituted settlement altered from time to time but could depend upon apprenticeship, place of birth, marriage (in the case of women), and/or father or mother's place of settlement.
ShrievaltyThe office or jurisdiction of a sheriff. Sheriffs were deputies of the Crown, and the main agent of the courts until the 14th century, and therefore of enormous executive influence in each county.

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Taxation

TermMeaning
LevyTo raise or collect a sum of money possibly through a tax or rent, also to require a persons attendance possibly at a court or to muster.
MurageA toll or tax levied for the building or repairing of the walls of a town. This also means the right of levying such a toll.
Papist TaxA 'head' tax. The first poll tax was levied in 1377, the again in 1381. All persons over a certain age (depending on when the tax was instigated) were required to pay the tax. The 'poll tax returns' are the records created from these levies, naming each taxpayer. Copies can be found at local record offices, but the originals are held at the National Archives.
PillageSome sort of tax or a duty levied on merchandise
PortageTax paid on entering a town or the charge on carriage and cargo.
Rate BookBooks usually recording payment of the poor rate.
Window TaxThis was introduced in 1697 after the abolition of the hearth tax. Residents paid a tax based on how many windows their place of abode had, though only where 10 or more windows existed. After 1825 occupiers with less than 8 windows were exempt. This tax was abolished in 1851.

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Non-conformity

TermMeaning
NonconformistRefusal to conform to the doctrine, discipline or polity of an established Church. Today, this terms is often used to describe Christian denominations other than the Church of England, e.g. Baptists, Methodists.
RecusancyA person who refused to conform to the rites of the Established Anglican Church

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General

TermMeaning
AquittanceA written discharge from a debt or obligation
Bull (papal)A written mandate of a pope of a more serious nature than a brief. In early times sealed with the pope's signet ring, but later by a special form of lead seal, called the 'bulla'.
DorseThe reverse side of a sheet of paper or parchment.
FoldyardAn enclosure for sheep.
HandbillSingle page printed notice or advertisement
Imprest1. Enforced service in the army or navy.
2. An advance or loan of money.
InterdictionThe placing or issuing of a prohibition.
PauperA poor person destitute of property and without employment usually reliant on a charity or poor relief from their parish of residence.
RectoThe right hand page of an open book, the opposite of verso.
RequisitionTo require, demand or call upon something for military purposes
VersoThe left hand page of an open book, the opposite of recto.
Ye "The". The sound of the "th" at the beginning of the word "the" used to be represented by a single letter (called a thorn) which resembles a modern letter "y".
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